Wednesday, August 23, 2017

Figure 173

Kunsthistorisches Museum
(no. IX A 79)
Photograph by James Steakley, PD
Roman cameo of Gemma Augustea (AD 9–12). A depiction of Emperor Augustus and Dea Roma seated on a bisellium surrounded by goddesses and allegories.

Figure 172

© 2017, David E. Graves, ECM
Special armchair of honor (poedria) at ground level in the theater of Priene, with profile in the form of lion’s paws

Figure 171

LACMA Los Angeles County Museum of Art
William Randolph Hearst Collection
(no. 50.33.14)
Photograph courtesy of © Museum Associates
The marble Lansdowne throne of Apollo (Roman late first cent.).

Figure 170

Archaeological Museum of Zaragoza, Spain
Photograph by Ecelan, PD
Reproduction of a triclinium (dining room, Lat. lectus triclinaris) with two couches (κλίνη, klinē) for reclining at meals (first cent. AD; see Fig. 91)

Figure 169

Photography by Dmitry Rozhkov, PD-art
Oil on Canvas painting of The Light of the World (Manchester version) by William Holman Hunt (1851–1856).

Figure 168

Allard Pierson Museum
Inv. No. APM 3422
Courtesy of Near EMPTiness
Roman bronze wine-strainer found near Nijmegen in the River Waal. First cent. AD, made possibly in Campania.

Figure 167

Photograph by Aldo Ardetti, PD
Thermopolium in Herculaneum. Most cities in Asia would have had a thermopolium where hot drinks could be purchased at stands along the street, such as were discovered at Herculaneum and Pompeii.

Figure 166

© The British Museum Exhibition
Photograph courtesy of Mary Beard
A bronze cylindical device (authepsa) for heating water to mix with wine (first cent. AD from Pompeii).

Figure 165

© 2017, David E. Graves, ECM
Hierapolis’ (modern Pamukkale, Turkey) travertine terrace pools formed by the mineral laden hot springs. The water not only provided a medical eye-salve, but also water for the city of Laodicea across the valley.

Figure 164

Photograph courtesy of © Mark Wilson
Column from Laodicea with an inscribed menorah with flames, a lulav to the left of the menorah, a shophar to the right, and above the menorah a cross.

Figure 163

© Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CNG).
(Photographs courtesy of www.cngcoins.com)
Medallion of Laodicea ad Lycum. Minted under Caracalla (AD 198–217). Obv.: AVTKAI MAVP ANT ONEINOCCEB, Bust of Caracalla, bearded laureate, draped and cuirassed. Rev.: EPIAILPIGR HTOC ACIAP LAODIKEWN NEWKORWN, Caracalla standing in a chariot driving four lions with heads turned back towards the Emperor, holding an eagle-tipped scepter in his left hand and Nike on a globe with a wreath and palm in his right hand. (BMC Phrygia 225).

Figure 162

© Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CNG).
(Photographs courtesy of www.cngcoins.com)
Medallion from Laodicea ad Lycum. Struck under Caracalla (AD 198–217). Obv.: AYT K M AYP ANTΩNEINOC. Caracalla bust laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Caracalla (Year 88, AD 211–212). Rev.: ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ ΝΕΩKOΡΩΝ TO ΠH three tetrastyle temples on a high podia; side-to-side 4 columns, left containing a statue of Caracalla (?), in the middle a four-column temple with the statue of Zeus with a scepter, and on the right a statue of Asclepius (SNGvA 2.3858).

Figure 161

© Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CNG).
(Photographs courtesy of www.cngcoins.com)
Coin from Laodicea ad Lycum. Minted under Caracalla (AD 198–217). Obv.: Ailios Pisoneinos, asiarch. ..ΑΙΛΩΣ ΠΙΣΟΝΕΙΝΚ ΑΡCΙΕΡ. Rev.: COΝΕWHC ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ ΝΕΩKOΡΩΝ (Laodikeon Neōkoron). Tyche of Laodicea or winged Nemesis, standing holding a patera and scepter, and at her feet a small statue of Minerva. She is facing the neocorate, an octostyle temple of Laodicea, the temple of Laodicea, seen in three-quarters perspective, with a statue standing inside. (Mionnet 4.769).

Figure 160

Photograph courtesy of © Mark Wilson
Column B from Temple A. Displays three registers (with figures inside of wreaths) with Latin inscriptions. In the upper wreath is a relief of the god Apollo, (APOLLINISACRUM); the middle relief of two griffins (VOTISXX), and the last of Fortuna (Gr. Tyche, FORTUNAE SACRUM).

Figure 159

Photograph courtesy of © Mark Wilson
The third cent. AD votive stele of Zeus Laodikeus from İcikli in Baklan, Denizli, in which he is portrayed as a shepherd.

Figure 158

© Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CNG).
(Photographs courtesy of www.cngcoins.com)
Coin from Laodicea ad Lycum. Obv.: Domitian, with Domitia (AD 81–96). Cornelius Dioscurides, magistrate. Bust of Domitian, laureate, draped, and cuirassed, and Domitia, draped. Rev.: Hera standing, holding a scepter and pomegranate, facing Zeus Laodiceus, holding eagle and scepter, and Athena, holding olive branch, spear, and shield, both standing. (RPC 2.1283; BMC 186)

Figure 157

Photograph courtesy of © Mark Wilson
Marble altar to Zeus Ktesios Patrios from Herakleia Salbace.

Figure 156

© Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CNG).
(Photographs courtesy of www.cngcoins.com)
Coin from Laodikeia ad Lycum. Struck under Antoninus Pius (AD 138–161). Obv.: ΔHMOC ΛAOΔIKEΩN, laureate and draped bust of Demos. Rev.: Inscription ΠO (ligate)-[A]IΛIOC-ΔIONYCIOC CABINIA-NOC. transliteration P. Aelius Dionysius Sabinianus, magistrate. Zeus Laodiceus standing, holding an eagle in his outstretched right hand and cradling a scepter in his left arm (Imhoof KM 28 = SNGvA 2.3820).

Figure 155

Photograph courtesy of © Mark Wilson
The middle wreath on column A with the relief of Laodicea (Fortuna/Tyche) with a turreted crown representing the city wall of Laodicea. The Latin inscription reads LADICIA SACRUM translated as “Laodicea Scared”.

Figure 154

Photograph courtesy of © Mark Wilson
Votive stele of Zeus Ktesios Patrios from Laodicea holding a shepherd’s staff in his left hand and an eagle in his right hand.

Tuesday, August 22, 2017

Figure 153

Photograph courtesy of © Ferrell Jenkins
153. The tomb of Flavius Zeuxis at Hierapolis.

Figure 152

Photography by Edal Anton Lefterov
Reconstruction of a vertical loom with genuine loom weights and string heddles, National museum of textile industry, Sliven, Bulgaria. Similar loom weights have been excavated at Laodicea (Şimşek, “Textile,” 139)

Figure 151

© Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CNG).
(Photographs courtesy of www.cngcoins.com)
Coin from Laodikeia ad Lycum. Struck under Augustus in 15 BC. Obv.: ΣEBAΣTOΣ, (Sebastos) Augustus laureate head. Rev.: ZEUXIS FILALHQHS ΛAOΔIKEΩN, (Zeuxis Philalethes of Laodicea). Zeus standing left, holding eagle and scepter (RPC 2894; SNG Cop. 555).

Figure 150

Photograph by Rjdeadly, PD
The Central Bath complex at Laodicea, looking across the Lycus Valley to Hierapolis.

Figure 149

© 2017, David E. Graves, ECM
The south Bath-Gymnasium complex arches at Laodicea, that is sometimes confused with an aqueduct.

Figure 148

Leon de Laborde, Voyage de l’Asie Mineure 1838, 86–87,
Pl. xxxix-83. PD–Art Old
This drawing by Leon de Laborde depicts the north theater in 1838, when the stage building still indicated three rows of cut stone visible and the seats appeared to be in excellent condition.

Figure 147

Photograph by Rjdeadly, PD
West theater looking toward the Lycus Valley. The white traverstine cliffs of Hierapolis (Pamukkale) are visible just over the top of the theater.

Figure 146

Photograph by Rjdeadly, PD
The restored Temple A with 19 columns restored and raised. It was originally dedicated to Apollo.

Figure 145

© 2017, David E. Graves, ECM
The overgrown Ladoicean stadium.

Figure 144

© 2017, David E. Graves, ECM
The nymphaeum (AD 130–150) of Perga, located 113 miles (182 km) southeast of Laodicea. Water from a stream once flowed over the fountain and then on down the colonnaded street in a raised channel. A statue of the river god Kestros is located in the center of the fountain.

Figure 143

Photograph courtesy of © Mark Wilson
Ground level aqueduct at Laodicea. Calcification is visible inside the terra-cotta water pipes, formed by the mineral laden ground water that flowed from the spring at Denizli.

Figure 142

© 2017, David E. Graves, ECM
Closeup of the water distribution tower (castellum aquae), terminal 1 at Laodicea. Calcification is visible inside the terra-cotta water pipes, formed by the mineral laden ground water from the springs

Figure 141

© 2017, David E. Graves, ECM
Map of the modern area around Laodicea, indicating the location of the archaeological sites, and the thermal and cold springs.

Figure 140

© 2017, David E. Graves, ECM
Water distribution tower (castellum aquae), terminal 1 at Laodicea.

Figure 139

© Photograph courtesy of Mark Wilson
The north state agora uncovered in 2016 under 7 meters of debris.

Figure 138

© 2017, David E. Graves, ECM
The Frontinus Gate at Hieropolis built during the time of Domitian that is contemporaneous with the triple arched Ephesian Gate at Laodicea.

Figure 137

© 2017, David E. Graves, ECM
Urban plan of the city of Laodicea according to the latest discoveries by Pamukkale University, University of Venice and Denizli University. 1). Ephesus Gate; 2). Hierapolis Gate; 3). Syrian Gate and Byzantine Nymphaeum; 4). Stadium; 5). Gymnasium/Bath complex; 6). Civic agora; 7). Bouleuterion; 8). Ephesus Porticos; 9). N. Theater; 10). W. Theater; 11). Monumental passage; 12). Roman Bridge on Ephesian Street; 13). Water Tower I; 14). East Baths; 15). West Baths; 16). Central Baths; 17). Caracalla Nymphaeum; 18). Temple A; 19). North Church; 20). SW Church; 21). NW Church; 22). Aphrodisian Gate; 23). W agora, Temple and W. Nymphaeum; 24). Water Tower II; 25). Central agora; 26). Byzantine walls; 27). Nymphaeum A; 28). Roman villa; 29). N. Workshop; 30). SW Temple; 31). Round Pytaneion; 32). NW Byzantine Gate; 33). S. Nymphaeum; 34). Laodicea Church; 35). Nymphaeum B, latrine and water storage; 36). Stadium Church; 37). E. Byzantine Nymphaeum; 38). House A and street water distribution center; 39). Asopos I–II; 40). North state agora.

Figure 136

© Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CNG).
(Photographs courtesy of www.cngcoins.com)
Coin from Laodikeia ad Lycum, Phrygia. Tiberius AE 19 of AD 43–37. Obv.: Magistrate Dioskourides with inscription ΣEBA-ΣTOΣ. Rev.: Inscription ΔIOΣKOYΡIΔHΣ TO ΔEYTEΡON ΛAOΔIKEΩN, Zeus standing holding an eagle and scepter (RPC 1.2911 = BMC 143–144 = IGLAM 6263 = SNG Cop. 549 = Imhoof KM 118).

Figure 135

© Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CNG).
(Photographs courtesy of www.cngcoins.com)
Coin from Laodicea ad Lycum (AD 41–55), struck by Nero Obv.: head of Polemon, the son of Zenon. Rev.: Tripod lebes (cauldron) surmounted by a serpent. (RPC 2915 = SNG Cop. 560 = BMC 163).

Figure 134

© 2017, David E. Graves, ECM
Map of the modern area around Laodicea indicating the location of ancient sites, the location of the existing and proposed aqueduct, and the thermal and cold springs.

Figure 133

© Photograph courtesy of eweb93.
Greek inscription on a pillar in the Capernaum synagogue. It translates: “Herod (the son) of Monimos and his son Justus together with their children erected this column” (CIJ 2.983).

Figure 132

Photography by Thermos, PD
The Caryatid Porch of the Erechtheion, Athens, 421–407 BC.

Figure 131

© Copyright the Trustees of the British Museum, London, England
Photograph by David E. Graves

One of the panels of the Black Obelisk (see below) depicting the Israelite King Jehu prostrate, bringing tribute to King Shalmaneser III in around 841 BC.

© Copyright the Trustees of the British Museum, London, England
Photograph by David E. Graves

Figure 130

Israel Museum, Jerusalem
Photograph by Chamberi, PD
House keys. Cave of the Letters, Nahal Hever (AD 132–135).

Figure 129

© 2017, David E. Graves, ECM
Drawing of a reproduction of the locking mechanism found at a palace in Khorsabad (Nineveh; Bonomi, Nineveh and its Palaces, 170–71). The key was made with various pin combinations to provide security. It was made of wood, and it should be noted that the key would easily fit on a shoulder as stated in Isaiah 22:22.

Figure 128

© Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CNG).
(Photographs courtesy of www.cngcoins.com)
Coin from Philadelphia Obv.: Showing the laureate head of Caracalla (AD 198–217) with inscription AYT K M AYR CE ANTWNEINOC, Magistrate Kl. Kapitonos. Rev.: EPI KL KAPITWNOC ARX A FL FILADELFEWN NEWKORWN, (neōkorōn). Depiction of a tetrastyle temple with curved architrave with Helios walking wearing short chiton and chlamys, and holding scepter over his shoulder (BMC 86 = SNGvA 2.3081).

Figure 127

© Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CNG).
(Photographs courtesy of www.cngcoins.com)
Coin from Philadelphia. Obv.: Draped bust of Artemis, wearing a crown (stephane), with quiver and arrows behind her back on one side. Rev.: ERMIPPOS ERMOGENOUS ARCIEREUS. Apollo enthroned holding a lyre and plectrum, with an owl in left field (first cent. BC; BMC 10 = SNG Cop. 337 = SNGvA 2.3058).

Figure 126

© Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CNG).
(Photographs courtesy of www.cngcoins.com)
Coin from Philadelphia (AD 193–211). Obv.: ZEYC KORYFAIOC. Head of Zeus Koryphaeos with his hair bound by a taenia. Rev.: ΦIΛAΔEΛΦEΩN. Aphrodite is standing holding an apple in her outstretched left hand, while her right hand is raised drawing up the edge of her chiton (BMC 24; SNG Tübingen 3749; RPC 3.2385).

Figure 125

© Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CNG).
(Photographs courtesy of www.cngcoins.com)
Coin from Philadelphia. Obv.: AYT K G M KY TRAIANOC DEKIOC. Laureate head of Trajan Decius (AD 249–251). Rev.: EPI AYR ROYFEINOY ARX OMONOIA FILADELFEWN NEWK EFECIWN. Alliance issue with Ephesus depicting a distyle temple seen in perspective on the left; in the center Tyche is standing, holding a statue of Artemis Anaitis, and looking back at the Dioskuri standing beside her (SNG Righetti 1065 = Mionnet 4.597).

Figure 173

Kunsthistorisches Museum (no. IX A 79) Photograph by James Steakley, PD Roman cameo of Gemma Augustea (AD 9–12). A depiction of Emperor...