Abbreviations




This work will conform to the abbreviations for ancient and modern sources and general format conventions set out by The SBL Handbook of Style: For Biblical Studies and Related Disciplines. 2nd ed. Alexander, Patrick, James Eisenbraun, and Billie Jean Collins, eds. (Atlanta, Ga.: SBL Press, 2014). Unless otherwise indicated the references to the works of classical authors reflect the Loeb Classical Library (LCL) numbering system, translations and Latin abbreviations. Following the classical author the Latin title is given with an English translation followed by the LCL number. The source for the other primary sources are indicated at the end of each abbreviation. Unless otherwise indicated, all Scripture quotations are from the ESV® Bible (The Holy Bible, English Standard Version®), copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers. Used by permission. All rights reserved. Italics within Scripture quotations indicate emphasis added. The Septuagint is based on Septuaginta edited by Alfred Rahlfs, Copyright © 1935 by the Württembergische Bibelanstalt / Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft (German Bible Society), Stuttgart. Greek translations are my own unless otherwise indicated and based on the Greek text of the 27th ed. edition of Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece in cooperation with the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia. ed., Kurt Aland, et al., Stuttgart, Germany: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1993 unless otherwise indicated. Used by permission. Philological work is based on Michael S. Bushell, Michael D. Tan BibleWorks™ Version 8 (1992–2008). Where no book is cited before the reference this will refer to a citation from the book of Revelation and has been removed to simplify the text (example: 3:5; 2:6). Apart from the biblial abbreviations and Dead Sea Scrolls the ancient and modern sources have been combined to make it easier to locate the abbreviation. General abbreviations are used sparingly however, I utilize the following:


Gen                  Genesis
Exod                Exodus
Lev                   Leviticus
Num                Numbers
Deut                 Deuteronomy
Judg                 Judges
Josh                  Joshua
1–2 Sam          1–2 Samuel
1–2 Kgs           1–2 Kings
1–2 Chr           1–2 Chronicles
Neh                  Nehemiah
Esth                 Esther
Job                   Job
Ps/Pss             Psalms
Prov                 Proverbs
Eccl                  Ecclesiastes
Isa                    Isaiah
Jer                    Jeremiah
Lam                 Lamentations
Ezek                Ezekiel
Dan                  Daniel
Obad               Obadiah
Jonah               Jonah
Mic                   Micah
Nah                  Nahum
Hab                  Habakkuk
Zeph                Zephaniah
Mal                   Malachi

Matt                 Matthew
Rom                 Romans
1–2 Cor           1–2 Corinthians
Gal                   Galatians
Eph                  Ephesians
Phil                  Philippians
Col                   Colossians
1–2 Thess        1–2 Thessalonians
1–2 Tim           1–2 Timothy
Phlm                Philemon
Heb                  Hebrews
Jas                    James
1–2 Pet            1–2 Peter
1–2–3 John     1–2–3 John
Rev                   Revelation

Dead Sea Scrolls

1Q26                Instruction or Widsom Apocryphon from Qumran Cave 1, pls. XXX–XXXI (eds. Strugnell et al., DJD 34, 1999)
1QH                 Hodayot or Thanksgiving Scroll from Qumran Cave 1 (Sukenik, DSSHU, 1955)
1QM                Milchamah or War Scroll from Qumran Cave 1 (Sukenik, DSSHU, 1955)
1QpHab          Pesher Habakkuk, from Qumran Cave I, 156-57 (Trevor, SQC, 1974)
1QS                  Serek ha-Yahad or Rule of the Community, Manual of Discipline from Qumran Cave 1 (Trever, SQC, 1974)
1QSa                1Q28a, Rule of the Congregation from Qumran Cave 1. Appendix a to 1QS (Trever, SQC, 1974)
4Q158              4QRPa; Reworked Pentateuch, BibPar from Qumran Cave 4 (Allegro, DJD 5, 1968)
4Q174              4QFlor (MidrEschata); Florilegium also Midrash on Eschatologya, from Qumran Cave 4 pls. XIX–XX (Allegro, DJD 5, 1968)
4Q175             4QTest; Testimonia from Qumran Cave 4 (Allegro, DJD 5, 1968)
4Q246              psDand Puech from Qumran Cave 4: pl. XI. (Brooke et al., DJD 22, 1996)
4Q369              Prayer of Enosh or Prayer Concerning God and Israel? from Qumran Cave 4 (Attridge et al., DJD 13, 1995)
4Q375              Apocryphon of Moses from Qumran Cave 4: pl. XIV (Strugnell et al., DJD 19, 1995)
4Q381              Non-Canonical Psalms B from Qumran Cave 4: pls. IX–XV (Schuller et al., DJD 11, 1998)
4Q382             Pap paraKings from Qumran Cave 4. Olyan, pls. XXXVIII–XLI (Attridge et al., DJD 13, 1995)
4Q405              ShirShabbf from Qumran Cave 4. Newsom, pls. XXII–XXX (Schuller et al., DJD 11, 1998)
4Q415–418      Instruction from Qumran Cave 4. pls. I–XXIX (eds. Strugnell et al., DJD 34, 1999)
4Q423              Instructiong (olim Sap. Work Ae and E; olim, Tree of Knowledge) from Qumran Cave 4. Elgvin, pls. XXX–XXXI (eds. Strugnell et al., DJD 34, 1999)
4Q504              Qumrân Grotte 4.III (4Q482–4Q520). (ed. Baillet, DJD 7, 1982)
4Q521             4QMessianic Apocalypse from Qumran Cave 4 (ed. Puech, DJD 25, 1998)
4QEnGiantsa  Book of Giants from Qumran by Stuckenbruck (ed. Pfann, Qumran Cave 4, DJD 36. 2000)
4QpNah          Pesher Nahum from Qumran Cave 4 (ed. Allegro, DJD 5, 1968)
DJD                 Discoveries in the Judaean Desert
DSSHU           The Dead Sea Scrolls of the Hebrew University (Sukenik, 1955)
SQC                 Scrolls from Qumran Cave I (Trever, 1974)

Ancient and modern sources

§                       section
1 Apoc. Jas.      First Apocalypse of James, ANT
1 Apol.             Justin Martyr. Apologia I, First Apology. ANF 1
1 Clem.             1 Clement, APF 1
1 En.                1 Enoch (Ethiopic Apocalypse), OTP
1 Esd               1 Esdras, APOT
1 Macc             1st Book of Maccabees, APOT
2 Apoc. Bar.      2 Baruch (Syriac Apocalypse), OTP
2 Apol.             Justin Martyr. Apologia II, Second Apology. ANF 1
2 Apol. Apologia ii Second Apology
2 Clem.             2 Clement, ANF 1
2 En.                2 Enoch (Slavonic Apocalypse), OTP
2 Esd               2 Esdras, APOT
2 Macc             2nd Book of Maccabees, APOT
3 Bar.               3 Baruch (Greek Apocalypse), OTP
3 En.                3 Enoch (Hebrew Apocalypse), OTP
3 Macc.             3 Maccabees, OTP
4 Ezra              4 Ezra, OTP
4 Macc.             4 Maccabees, OTP
AA                  Archaeologischer Anzeiger
AB                    The Anchor Bible
abbr.                abbreviation
ABD                The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (6 vols. eds. Freedman et al., 1996)
Abr.                  Philo. De Abrahamo, On the Life of Abraham. LCL 289
ABRL               Anchor Bible Reference Library
ABSA              Annual of the British School of Athens
ABul                 The Art Bulletin
Ach.                  Aristophanes. Acharnians. LCL 178
ACNT              Augsburg Commentary on the New Testament Series
ACT                 Ancient Christian Texts
Acts John           Acts of John. ANF 8
Acts Phil.          Acts of Philip. ANT (trans. Bovon and Matthews, 2012)
Acts Thom.       Acts of Thomas. ANT
AD                   Anno Domini (Lat.) in the year of our Lord.
ad Aen.             Servius Maurus Honoratus. Ad Aeneidam, In Vergilii Aeneidem commentarii, Commentary on the Aeneid of Vergil (trans. Thilo and Hagen, 2011)
Adv. nat.           Arnobius. Adversus nationes, Against the Pagans. ANF 6
AE                   L’Année épigraphique (Merlin, 1909-2010)
Aen.                  Virgil. Aeneid. LCL 63, 64
AESM              Archaeological Exploration of Sardis Monograph
AESR              Archaeological Exploration of Sardis Reports
AESR               Archaeological Exploration of Sardis Reports
Aeth.                 Heliodorus of Emesa. Aethiopica, An Ethiopian Romance (trans. Hadas. 1999)
Ag.                   Aeschylus. Agamemnon. Agamemnon. LCL 146
Ag. Ap.            Josephus. Contra Apionem, Against Apion. LCL 186
AGRW            Associations in the Greco-Roman World (eds. Ascough, Harland, and Kloppenborg, 2012)
AJ.                    Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus. Ajax. LCL 20
AJA                 American Journal of Archaeology
AJEC               Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity
AKZ                 Ausgewählte Koptische Zaubertexte (ed. Kropp, 1930-1931)
Alex.                Plutarch. Lives: Alexander, Life of Alexander. LCL 99
Alex.                Lycophron. Alexandra. LCL 129
Am.                  Ovid. Amores. LCL 41
Amic.                Cicero. De amicitia, On Friendship. LCL 154
AMStud.          Asia Minor Studien
Anab.               Xenophon. Anabasis. LCL 90
Anab.                Arrian. Anabasis of Alexander. LCL 236
Anat. Admin.   Galen. De anatomicis administrationibus, On Anatomical Procedures (trans. Singer 1956)
AnBib               Analecta biblica
ANE                ancient Near East (Eastern)
ANET OT      The Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (3rd ed. ed. Pritchard, 1969)
ANEVT          ancient Near Eastern vassal treaty(-ies)
ANF                The Ante-Nicene Fathers (eds. Roberts et al., 10 vols, 1994)
Ann.                 Tacitus. Histories and Annales, Annals. LCL 111, 249, 312, 322
ANRW            Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung (eds. Haase and Temporini, 1972–1995)
ANT                The Apocryphal New Testament (ed. Elliott, 2005)
Ant.                  Plutarch. The Life of Marcus Antonius, Marc Antony, Mark Anthony. LCL 101
Ant.                  Josephus. Antiquitates judaicae, Jewish Antiquities. LCL 242, 265, 281, 489, 410, 433, 456, 490
Antichr.            Hippolytus of Rome. De antichristo, On Christ and the Antichrist. ANF 5
AÖAW            Anzeiger der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Ap. John           II,1 Apocryphon of John. NHC
APAACS         American Philological Association American Classical Studies
APF                 The Apostolic Fathers (ed. Lightfoot, 2007)
Apoc.               Apocalypsis, Revelation
Apoc. Ab.         Apocalypse of Abraham. OTP
Apoc. El.          Apocalypse of Elijah. OTP
Apoc. Mos.        Apocalypse of Moses. OTP
Apoc. Zeph.       Apocalypse of Zephaniah. OTP
Apol.                Tertullian. Apologeticus, Apology. ANF 3; LCL 250
Apol.                 Aristides. Apologia, Apology. ANF 9
Apol.                 Justin Martyr. Apologia, Apology. ANF 1
Apos. Con.        Apostolic Constitutions and Canons, commonly called the Clementine Liturgy. ANF 7
APOT              The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament. 2 vols. (ed. Charles, 1913)
App.                 Ausonius. Appendix to Ausonius. LCL 115
Arch.                 Cicero. Pro Archia. LCL 158
Arch.                 Vitruvius. De architectura, The Ten Books on Architecture. LCL 251, 280
Argo.                 Flaccus, C. Valerius. Argonautica. LCL 286
AS                    Anatolian Studies
As. Mos.           Assumption of Moses. OTP
Ascen. Isa.         Mart. Ascen. Isa. 6–11. OTP
ASES               American Society for the Excavation of Sardis 
Astron.              Manilius. Astronomica. LCL 469
Att.                   Cicero. Epistulae ad Atticum, Letters to Atticus. LCL 7
Aug.                  Suetonius Tranquillus, Gaius. Lives of the Caesars: Augustus. LCL 31
AUSS              Andrews University Seminary Studies
Autol.               Theophilus of Antioch. Apologia ad Autolycum, Apology to Autolycus. ANF 2
AvP                  Die Inschriften von Pergamon (Fränkel, Fabricius, and Schuchhardt 1890)
AYBC              The Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries (40 vols. eds. Freedman et al., 1996)
b.                      (before rabb. txt.) Babylonian Talmud, (ed. Rodkinson, 1918)
b. Bar.               Babylonian Talmud tractate Barakot (Goldwurm, 1990)
b. agigah         Babylonian Mishnaic tractate agigah
b. Sanh.             Babylonian Talmud tractate Sanhedrin (Goldwurm, 1990)
b. Yoma             Babylonian Talmud tractate Yoma (Kippurim, Goldwurm, 1990)
BA                   The Biblical Archaeologist
BABesch          Bulletin antieke beschaving Supplement
Bacch.                Euripides. Bacchae, Bacchanals. LCL 495
Bacch.                Plautus. Bacchides, The Two Bacchises. LCL 60
BAFCS            Book of Acts in Its First-Century Setting Series
Bar                    Baruch. APOT
BAR                 Biblical Archaeology Review
BARI               British Archaeological Reports International Series
Barn.                 Barnabas. ANF 1
BASOR            Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
BBR                  Bulletin for Biblical Research
BC                    Before Christ
BCH                 Bulletin de correspondance hellénique
BDAG             Bauer, Danker, Arndt, and Gingrich. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (3rd ed., 1999)
BDB                 Briggs, Driver, and Brown. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (1996)
BDF                 Blass, and Debrunner. A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (trans. Funk 1961)
BECNT           Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament
BEFAR           Bibliothèque des Écoles Françaises d’Athènes et de Rome
Bell. civ.             Appian of Alexandria. Bella civilia, Civil Wars. LCL 5
Bell. gall.           Julius Caesar. Bellum gallicum, Gallic War. LCL 39
BETL               Bibliotheca ephemeridum theologicarum lovaniensium
BI                      Biblical Illustrator
BJRL                Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester
BJS                   Brown Judaic Studies
BM                   British Museum
BMC Ionia        Catalogue of the Greek Coins of Ionia in the British Museum (Head, Vol. 16, 1892)
BMC Lydia      Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum: Lydia (Head, Vol. 22, 1902)
BMC Phrygia    Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum: Phrygia (Head, Vol. 25, 1906)
BMC                British Museum Catalogue
BN                    Biblische Notizen
BNTC              Black’s New Testament Commentaries
BR                    Biblical Research
BrillPauly          Brill’s Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World New Pauly (28 vols. eds. Landfester, Manfred, and Gentry. Trans. Salazar and Gentry, 2007)
BrillPaulyA       Brill’s New Pauly, Antiquity Volumes Online (22 vols. eds. Cancik, and Schneider. Trans. Salazar and Gentry, 2006)
BS                     Bible and Spade
BSac                  Bibliotheca sacra
BSCS                Bible Study Commentary Series
BST                  The Bible Speaks Today
BT                    The Bible Translator
BTB                  Biblical Theology Bulletin
Byz.                  Byzantine
BZ                    Biblische Zeitschrift
C. Rom. Hist.   Paterculus, Marcus Velleius. Historiarum Libri Duo, Compendium of Roman History. LCL 152
ca.                     circa (Lat.) “around, about, approximately”
CAD                The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (eds. Oppenheim and Erica Reiner, 1956–)
Caecin.              Cicero. Pro Caecina, On behalf of Aulus Caecina. LCL 198
Caes.                 Plutarch. Lives: Caesar. LCL 99
CAH                Cambridge Ancient History
Cal.                   Suetonius Tranquillus. Caligula. LCL 31
Cant.                 Canticum canticorum, Song of Songs
CB                    The Classical Bulletin
CBQ                 Catholic Biblical Quarterly
CBR                  Currents in Biblical Research
CBSC               The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges
CCS                  Cincinnati Classical Studies
CE                    The Catholic Encyclopedia (19 vols., eds. Herbermann, Pace, Pallen, Shahan, and Wynne, 1913)
Cels.                  Origen of Alexandria. Contra Celsum, Against Celsus. ANF 4
cent.                 century
cf.                     conferre (Lat.); conferer (French), compare
ch. / chs.         chapter and chapters
Char.                 Lucian of Samosata. Charon or The Inspectors. LCL 54
Char.                 Theophrastus. Characters. LCL 225
Cher.                 Philo. De cherubim, On the Cherubim. LCL 227
ChrEg               Chronique d’Égypte
Chron.               Pamphilus Eusebius. Chronicon, Chronicle (ed. Fotheringham, 2012)
CIG                  Corpus inscriptionum graecarum (4 vols., eds. Böeckh et al., 1828–1877)
CIJ                    Corpus inscriptionum judaricarum (3 vols., ed. Frey, 1936)
CIL                   Corpus inscriptionum latinarum (20 vols., ed., Mommsen, 1974)
Civ.                   Augustine of Hippo. De civitate Dei, The City of God. NANF1
CJ                     Classical Journal
Cl.                     Suetonius. Lives of the Caesars: Divus Claudius, The Deified Claudius. LCL 38
ClQ                  Classical Quarterly
CNT                 Commentary on the New Testament Series
Cogn.                 Galen. Libellus de cognoscendis curandisque animi morbis, On the affections of the mind (trans. Coxe, 1846)
Col.                   Aristotle. de Coloribus, On Colours. LCL 307
Comm. Apoc.    Andreas of Caesarea. Commentary on the Apocalypse (Constantinou, 2011)
Comm. Apoc.    Victorinus of Petovium. Commentary on the Apocalypse (ed. Weinrich, 2012); ANF 7
Comm. Dan.     Hippolytus of Rome. Commentarium in Danielem, Commentary on Daniel. ANF 5
Comm. Gen.      Origen of Alexandria. Commentary on Genesis. ANF 9
Comm. in Ep. Paul Jerome. Commentary on Epistles of Paul, APNF2
Comm. Isa.        Basil the Great. Commentary on Isaiah. NPNF2 8
Comm. Job.       Origen of Alexandria. Commentary on Job. ANF 9
Comm. Matt.     Origen of Alexandria. Commentary on Matthew. ANF 9
Comm. Mich.     Jerome. Commentariorum in Michaeum libri II, Commentary on Micah. APNF 2 6
Comp. Doct.      Marcellus, Nonius. De compendiosa doctrina libros 20 (3 vols. ed. Lindsay, 1903)
Comp. Med.       Galen. De Compositione Medicamentorum Secundum Locus, On the Composition of Drugs (Medical Compounds) according to Places (ed. Kühn, Claudii Galeni Opera Omnia, 1964)
Comp. Phil. Flam. Plutarch. Comparatio Philopoemenis et Titi Flaminini, A Comparison of Philopoemen and Titus Flamininus. LCL 102
Contempl.          Philo. De vita contemplativa, On the Contemplative Life. LCL 363
Contin.              Augustine, De continentia, Continence. NPNF1 3
Cor.                   Demosthenes. De corona, On the Crown. LCL 155
Cor.                   Plutarch. Lives: Marcius Coriolanus. LCL 80
Cor.                   Tertullian. De corona militis, The Crown. ANF 3
COS                 The Context of Scripture (3 vols., eds. Hallo and Younger, 1997–2002)
CP                    Classical Philology
CPJ                   Corpus papyrorum judaicorum (3 vols. ed. Tcherikover, 1957–1964)
CQ                    Church Quarterly
CRAI               Comptes rendus de l’Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres
CRINT            Compendia Rerum Iudaicarum Ad Novum Testamentum
CSCA              California Studies in Classical Antiquity
Ctes.                  Aeschines. In Ctesiphonem, Against Ctesiphon. LCL 106
CTJ                   Calvin Theological Journal
CTQ                 Concordia Theological Quarterly
CTSJ                Chafer Theological Seminary Journal
Curc.                 Plautus, Titus Maccius. Curculio. LCL 61
Cyr.                   Cyranides or Kiranides (Waegeman, 1987)
Cyr.                   Xenophon. Cyropaedia, The Education of Cyrus. LCL 52
d.                      died
DACL             Dictionnaire d’archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie (eds. Cabrol and Leclercq. 15 vols. Paris, 1907–1953)
DAW               Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse
DBib                 A Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols., eds. Hastings and Selbie, 1911)
DBSup              Dictionnaire de la Bible: Supplément (ed. Pirot and Robert, 1928–)
De Herod.         Plutarch. De Herodoti malignitate, On the Malice of Herodotus. LCL 426
De nat. anim.    Aelian, Claudius. De natura animalium, On the Nature of Animals. LCL 449
De or.                Cicero. De oratore, On the Orator. LCL 348
De Urb.             Stephanus of Byzantium. De Urbanus, Urban (ed. de Pinedo, 1678)
Deipn.               Athenaeus. Deipnosophistae, The Learned Banqueters. LCL 204, 208, 224, 327
Dem. ev.            Eusebius. Demonstratio evangelica, Demonstration [or proof] of the Gospel (trans. Ferrar, 2001)
Descr.                Pausanias. Graeciae description, Description of Greece. LCL 93, 188, 272, 297
DGRA             Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (2 Vols, ed. Smith, Wayte, and Marindin, 1890–1891)
Dial.                 Justin Martyr. Dialogus cum Tryphone, Dialogue with Trypho the Jew. ANF 1
Dial. d.             Lucian of Samosata. Dialogi deorum, Dialogues of the Gods. LCL 431
Dial. meretr.      Lucian. Dialogues of the Courtesans. LCL 431
Diatr.                Arrian. Epicteti Diatribai, Epictetus Discourses or Dissertations. LCL 131, 218
Did.                  Didache. APF
Dig.                   Ulpian. Digest of Justinian (ed. Watson, 1998)
Diogn.               Epistle to Diognetus. ANF
DJD                 Discoveries in the Judaean Desert
DJG                  Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (eds. Green, McKnight, and Marshall, 1992)
DNTB              Dictionary of New Testament Background (eds. Evans and Porter, 2000)
Dom.                 Cicero. De domo suo, For Himself. LCL 158
Dom.                 Suetonius. Lives of the Caesars: Domitianus, Domitian. LCL 38
DSS                  Dead Sea Scrolls
DSSHU           The Dead Sea Scrolls of the Hebrew University (Sukenik, 1955)
e.g.                   exempli gratia (Lat.) for example.
EA                   Epigraphica Anatolica
EBC                 The Expositor’s Bible Commentary
ECAM             Early Christianity in Asia Minor
Eccl.                  Aristophanes. Ecclesiazusae, Women of the Assembly. LCL 180
Ecl.                   Clement of Alexandria. Eclogae propheticae, Extracts from the Prophets. ANF 8
ECM                Electronic Christian Media
ECR                 Eastern Churches Review
ed(s).                editor(s), edited by
ed.                    edition
EDB                 Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (eds. Freedman, Myers, and Beck, 2000)
EDEJ               The Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism (eds. Collins and Harlow, 2010)
Edict. Diocl.      Edict of Diocletian (Graser, 1975).
EDNT             Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament (3 vols., eds. Balz, and Schneider, 1990-1993)
EDRL              Encyclopedic Dictionary of Roman Law (ed. Berger, 1953)
EDT                Evangelical Dictionary of Theology (ed. Elwell, 2001)
EGGNT          The Exegetical Guide to the Greek New Testament
EGT                The Expositor’s Greek Testament
Eleg.                 Propertius, Sextus. Elegies. LCL 18
Ep Jer              Epistle of Jeremiah. APOT
Ep.                   Augustine, Epistulae, Letters of St. Augustin. NPNF1
Ep.                   Bacchylides. Epinicians, Victory Odes. LCL 461
Ep.                   Cyprian of Carthage. Epistulae, Letters. ANF 5
Ep.                   Hieronymus (Jerome). Epistulae, Letters. NPNF2 6
Ep.                   Horace. Epodes. LCL 33
Ep.                   Pliny the Younger. Epistulae, Letters. LCL 55, 59
Ep.                   Sidonius Apollinaris. Epistulae, Letters. LCL 420
Ep. Arist.         The Letter of Aristeas, OTP
Ep. Mor.           Seneca the Younger. Ad Lucilium Epistulae Morales, Moral Letters to Lucilius. LCL 75, 76, 77
Eph. Tale          Xenophon of Ephesus. The Ephesian Tale of Anthia and Habrocomes. LCL 69
Epig.                 Martial, Marcus Valerius. Epigrammata, Epigrams, LCL 94, 95, 480
Epit.                 Justinus, Marcus Junianus. Epitome of the Philippic, History of Pompeius Trogus (ed. Clauss, 1994)
ÉPRO              Études préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l’empire romain
EQ                   The Evangelical Quarterly
Eq.                   Aristophanes. Equites, The Knights. LCL 178
ESV                 English Standard Version
et al.                 et alii (Lat.), and others
etc.                   et cetera, and the rest
Eth. eud.           Aristotle. Ethica eudemia, Eudemian Ethics. LCL 285
Eth. nic.            Aristotle. Ethica nichomachea Nichomachean Ethics. LCL 73
ETL                 Ephemerides theologicae lovanienses
ETS                 Evangelical Theological Society
Eum.                 Aeschylus. Eumenides. LCL 146
EvQ                  The Evangelical Quarterly
ExpTim            The Expository Times
f.                       following (verse or page)
Fab.                  Hyginus, Gaius Julius. Fabulae in The Myths of Hyginus (ed. Grant, 1960)
Facs.                Facsimile
Fals. leg.            Aeschines, De falsa legatione, False Embassy (Speeches). LCL 106
Fam.                 Cicero. Epistulae ad familiars, Letters to Friends. LCL 205, 216
Fas.                   Ovid. Fasti. LCL 253
Fem.                Feminine
ff.                     following (verses or pages).
FiE                   Forschungen in Ephesos
Flac.                  Cicero. Pro Flacco, Valerius Flaccus, In Defense of Lucius. LCL 324
Fort.                  Cyprian of Carthage. Exhortation to Martyrdom: Addressed to Fortunatus. ANF 5
Fr. Ps.               Origen. Fragmenta in Psalmos 1–150, Fragments of the Book of Psalms, ANF 4
Fr.                     French
Frag.                 Eumelus. Fragments. (West) LCL 497
Frag.                 Hipponax of Ephesus. Fragments. LCL 259
Frag.                 Sappho. Fragments. LCL 142
Frag.                  Sophocles. Oedipus Tyrannus. Fragments of Known Plays. LCL 483
FrgPol.              Fragments on Polycarp (Weidmann, 2010)
FRLANT         Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur des Alten und Neuen Testaments
ft.                      feet
Fug.                   Philo. De fuga et inventione, On Flight and Finding. LCL 275
Galb.                 Suetonius. The Lives of The Twelve Caesars: Galba. LCL 38
Galen. Galen on the Passions and Errors of the Soul.
GDBS              Gorgias Dissertations Biblical Studies
GELNT          Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (eds. Gesenius, Tregelles, and Thayer, 1987)
Gen. Rab.         Rabbah on Genesis (ed. Freedman, 1992)
Geogr.               Strabo. Geographica, Geography. LCL 49, 50, 182, 196, 211, 223, 241
Ger.                  German
GIBM              Collection of Greek Inscriptions in the British Museum (5 vols. ed. Newton 1874–1916)
Gk. Apoc. Ezra Greek Apocalypse of Ezra. OTP
GNB                Good News Bible
Gos. Mary         BG, 1 Gospel of Mary, NHC
Gos. Thom.       II,2 Gospel of Thomas NHC
Gr.                    Greek
GTCEC           The Greek Testament: A Critical and Exegetical Commentary
GTJ                  Grace Theological Journal
HA Carin.        The Historia Augusta: Carinus (trans. Magie) LCL 263
HA Comm.       The Historia Augusta: Commodus (trans. Magie) LCL 139
HA Elag.         The Historia Augusta: Elagabalus (trans. Magie) LCL 140
ha.                    hectare
Haer.                Augustine. De haeresibus, Heresies. NANF1
Haer.                Hippolytus of Rome. Refutatio omnium haeresium (Philosophoumena), Refutation of All Heresies. ANF 5
Haer.                 Irenaeus. Adversus haereses, Against Heresies. ANF 1
HALOT          The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (4 vols., eds. Koehler, Baumgartner, and Stamm, 1994–1999)
Hamm.             The Code of Hammurabi (trans. Harper, 1904)
HDB                Dictionary of the Bible (4 vols., eds. Hastings et al., 1899–1911)
HDR
Hell.                  Xenophon. Hellenica, Hellenic Writings. LCL 88
Her.                  Ovid. Heroides. LCL 41
Her.                  Philo. Quis rerum divinarum heres sit, Who Is the Heir? LCL 261
Hist.                 Herodotus. Historiae, The Histories of the Persian Wars. LCL 117–119
Hist.                 Polybius. Historiae, The Histories or The Rise of the Roman Empire. LCL 128, 138, 159–161
Hist.                 Thucydides. Histories, History of the Peloponnesian War. LCL 109
Hist. An.          Aristotle. Historia Animalium History of Animals; Natural History of Animals. LCL 438
Hist. eccl.          Eusebius, Pamphilus. Historia ecclesiastica, Ecclesiastical History. NPNF2 1
Hist. Her.         Memnon. History of Heracleia (trans. Jacoby)
Hist. Lib.          Diodorus Siculus. Bibliotheca historica, Library of History. LCL 375, 389, 409, 422, 423
Hist. Rom.        Dio Cassius. Historia Romana, Roman History. LCL 66, 83, 175–177
Hist. Rome        Livy or Titus Livius Patavinus. Ab Urbe Condita, History of Rome. LCL 172, 295, 301, 313, 332
Hist.                  Marcellinus. History. LCL 300
HKNT             Handkommentar zum Neuen Testament
HNT                Handbuch zum neuen Testament
HNTC             Harper’s New Testament Commentaries
Hom. Luc.        Origen. Homiliae in Lucam, Homilies on Luke (Trans. Lienhard, 1996)
Hom. Num.      Origen. Homiliae in Numeros, Homilies on Numbers (trans. Scheck, 2009)
Hom. Od.          Eustathius, Archbishop of Thessalinica. Commentarii Ad Homeri Iliadem et Odysseam, Commentaries On Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey (4 vols. ed. Stallbaum, 1970)
HSCP               Harvard Studies in Classical Philology
HTR                Harvard Theological Review
HTS                 Harvard Theological Studies
HUCA            Hebrew Union College Annual
Hymn. Apoll.    Callimachus. Hymnus in Apollinem, Hymn to Apollo. LCL 129
Hymn. Dian.     Callimachus. Hymnus in Dianam, Hymn to Diana or Artemis. LCL 129
i.e.                    id est (Lat). that is
I.Eph.               Die Inschriften von Ephesos, Inscriptions of Ephesus (8 vols. ed. Wankel et al., 1979–1984)
I.Ias.                  Die Inschriften von Iasos (2 vols. ed. Blümel, 1985)
I.Laod.              Die Inschriften von Laodikeia am Lykos (ed. Corsten, 1997)
I.Perg.               Die Inschriften von Pergamon (2 Vols. Fränkel, Fabricius, and Schuchhardt. 1890–1895)
I.Phil.                Tituli Lydiae Linguis Graeca et Latina Conscripti: Fasciculus III, Philadelpheia et Ager Philadelphenus. TAM V,3. (ed. Petzl, 2007)
I.Philipp.           Philippi. Band II. Katalog der Inschriften von Philippi (2 vols. Pilhofer, 2009)
I.Sard.               Sardis: Greek and Latin Inscriptions (eds. Buckler and Robinson, 1932).
I.Smyr.              Die Inschriften von Smyrna (2 vols. ed. Petzl, 1987–1990)
I.Thyat.              Inscriptions from Thyatira, in Tituli Lydiae Linguis. TAM V, 2. (ed. Hermann 1989)
Icar.                  Lucian of Samosata. Icaromenippus, The Sky-man. LCL 54
ICC                  International Critical Commentary Series
IDB                  The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible (4 vols., ed. Buttrick, 1984)
IEJ                    Israel Exploration Journal
IG II                 Inscriptiones graecae II: Inscriptiones Atticae: Editio minor (8 vols. eds. Kirchner, Gaertingen, and Hiller, 1923)
IG IX,1            Inscriptiones graecae IX.1: Inscriptiones Phocidis, Locridis, Aetoliae, Acarnaniae, insularum maris Ionii (Vol. 1. ed. Dittenberger, 1897)
IG V,1             Inscriptiones graecae V.1: Inscriptiones Laconiae et Messeniae (Vol. 1. ed. Kolbe, 1967)
IG X 2.1          Inscriptiones graecae X: Inscriptiones Epiri, Macedoniae, Thraciae, Scythiae. Pars II, fasc. 1: Inscriptiones Thessalonicae et viciniae (2 vols. ed. Edson, 1972)
IG XII 2          Inscriptiones graecae XII: Inscriptiones Insularum Maris Aegaei Praeter Delum: 2. Inscriptiones Lesbi, Nesi, Tenedi (ed. Paton, 1899)
IG XIV           Inscriptiones Graecae XIV: Inscriptiones Siciliae et Italiae, additis Galliae, Hispaniae, Britanniae, Germaniae inscriptionibus (ed. Kaibel, 1890)
IGLAM           Voyage archéologique en Grèce et en Asie Mineure, Tome III: Inscriptions grecques et latines recueillies en Asie Mineure (Le Bas, Waddington, Landron, and Foucart, 1870)
Ign. Eph.          Ignatius. To the Ephesians. ANF
Ign. Magn.        Ignatius. To the Magnesians. ANF
Ign. Phld.         Ignatius. To the Philadelphians. ANF
Ign. Pol.           Ignatius. To Polycarp. ANF
Ign. Smyrn.       Ignatius. To the Smyrnaeans. ANF
IGR                  Inscriptiones graecae ad res romanas pertinentes (4 vols., eds. Lafaye, Toutain, Henry, and Cagnat, 1911–1927) Vol 1: (nos. 1–1518; ed. Cagnat, Toutain, and Jouguet, 1911); Vol 2: never published; Vol 3: ed. Cagnat and Lafaye,1906); Vol. 4: Asia (nos. 1–1764; ed. Lafaye, 1927)
IGSK               Inschriften griechischer Städte aus Kleinasien
IJC                    Israel Journal of Chemistry
IJO                   Inscriptiones Judaicae Orientis (3 vols. eds. Noy and Bloedhorn, 2004)
Il.                      Homer. Iliad. LCL 170, 171
ILS                   Inscriptiones latinae selectae (3 vols. in 5 parts. Dessau, 1892–1916).
ILydiaHoz        Die lydischen Kulte im Lichte der griechischen inschriften. AMStud. 36. (ed. Hoz, 1999)
ILydiaKP           Bericht über eine Reise in Lydien und der südlichen Aiolis (eds. Keil, and Premerstein, Vol 1. 1908; Vol 2. Bericht über eine zweite Reise in Lydien, 1911)
Imhoof KM     Kleinasiatische Münzen (2 vols. Imhoof-Blumer, 1901)
Inst.                   Lactantius. Divinarum institutionum libri VII, The Divine Institutes. ANF 7
Int                     Interpretation
Introd.               Pseudo-Galen. Oeuvres, III. Le Médecin. Introduction. (ed. Petit, 2009)
Ion                    Euripides. Ion, Romantic Drama. LCL 10
Iph. taur.           Euripides. Iphigenia taurica, Iphigeneia at Tauris. LCL 495
ISBE                The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (4 vols. Fully Revised ed. Bromiley, 1995)
It.                     Italian
IVP                  Inter-Varsity Press
IVPBD            The IVP Bible Dictionary Series
J.W.                  Josephus. Bellum judaicum, Jewish War. LCL 203, 210, 487
JAC                  Jahrbuch für Antike und Christentum
JANES            Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society of Columbia University
JATS                Journal of the Adventist Theological Society
JBL                   Journal of Biblical Literature
JBR                   Journal of Bible and Religion
JDAI                Jahrbuch des kaiserlich-deutschen archäologischen Instituts
Jdt                    Judith. APOT
JETS                Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society
JHS                  Journal of Hellenic Studies
JJS                    Journal of Jewish Studies
JNES               Journal of Near Eastern Studies
JÖAI                Jahreshefte des Österreichischen archäologischen Instituts
Jos. As.             Joseph and Asenath, OTP
JPS                    The Jewish Publication Society Torah Commentary Series
JR                     Journal of Religion
JRA                  Journal of Roman Archaeology
JRASC             Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada
JRGS                Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London
JRH                  Journal of Religious History
JRS                   Journal of Roman Studies
JRSM               Journal of Roman Studies Monographs
JSJ                    Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic, and Roman Periods
JSJSup              Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism
JSNT               Journal for the Study of the New Testament
JSNTSup          Journal for the Study of the New Testament: Supplement Series
JSOT                Journal for the Study of the Old Testament
JSOTSup          Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series
JSP                   Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha
JSQ                   Jewish Studies Quarterly
JTS                   Journal of Theological Studies
JTVI                Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute, or Philosophical Society of Great Britain
Jub.                   Jubilees. APOT
Jul.                    Suetonius. Divus Julius, The Lives of the Caesars: The Deified Julius Caesar. LCL 31
KAI                  Kanaanäische und aramäische Inschriften (Donner and Röllig. 5th ed., 1966–2002)
KJV                  King James Version
KST                  Kazi Sonuçlari Toplantisi
KZNT             Kommentar Zum Neuen Testament
L&N               Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Based on Semantic Domains (2nd ed., eds. Louw and Nida, 1989)
L.A.B.              Pseudo-Philo. Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum, Book of Biblical Antiquities. OTP
Lacae.                Plutarch. Moralia: Lacaenarum Apophthegmata, Sayings of Spartan Women. LCL 245
Lanz                 Numismatik Lanz München, Auction Catlogues (Lanz, 2010)
Laps.                 Cyprian of Carthage. De lapsis, Concerning the Lapsed. ANF 5
Lat.                   Latin
LBW                Inscriptions Grecques et Latines Recueillies En Asie Mineure ( Le Bas, and Waddington, 1972)
Leg.                   Cicero. De legibus, On the Laws. LCL 213
Leg.                   Philo. Legum allegoriae I, II, III, Allegorical Interpretation 1, 2, 3. LCL 226
Leg.                   Plato. Leges, Laws. LCL 192
Legat.                Philo. Legatio ad Gaium, On the Embassy to Gaius. LCL 379
Let.                   Apollonius of Tyana. Letters. LCL 458
Leuc. Clit.         Tatius, Achilles, Leucippe et Clitophon, The Adventures of Leucippe and Cleitophon. LCL 45
Lex.                  Lucian of Samosata. Lexiphanes. LCL 302
LHSOT           The Library of Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Studies
Lib.                   Apollodorus. The Library. LCL 121
Lib. Mem.         Ampelius, Lucius. Liber Memorialis, Memorial Book (trans. Assmann, 1935)
Life                   Josephus. Vita, The Life. LCL 186
LIMC               Lexicon iconographicum mythologiae classicae (8 vols. eds. Ackerman and Gisler, 1981–1997)
Ling.                 Varro, Marcus Terentius. De lingua latina, On the Latin Language. LCL 233
lit.                     literal, or literally.
LNTS               The Library of New Testament Studies
LSJ                    Liddell, Henry G., Robert Scott, H. S. Jones, A Greek-English Lexicon (10th ed., 1940)
LTQ                 Lexington Theological Quarterly
Lucil.                Seneca, Lucius Annaeus, the Younger. Epistulae morales ad Lucilium, Moral Epistles to Lucilius. LCL 77
LXX                The Septuagint Version of the Bible (the Greek OT)
m                      meter
m.                     The Mishnah (ed. Lipman)
m. Pir. ʾAbot    Mishnah tractate Pirqe ‘Abot, Sayings of the Jewish Fathers (ed. Lipman)
m. Sanh.            Mishnah tractate Sanhedrin (ed. Lipman)
Macc.               Macchabaei, Maccabees
MAMA 4        Monumenta Asiae Minoris Antiqua: Monuments and Documents from Eastern Asia and Western Galatia (vol. 4. eds. Buckler, Calder, and Guthrie, 1933)
MAMA 6        Monumenta Asiae Minoris Antiqua: Monuments and Documents from Phrygia and Caria (vol. 6. eds. Buckler, Calder, and Guthrie, 1939)
Mand.               Shepherd of Hermas. Mandate. ANF
Marc.                Tertullian. Adversus Marcionem, Against Marcion, ANF 3
Mart. Asc. Isa. Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah. OTP
Mart. Carp.       Martyrdom of Carpus (Musurillo, 1972)
Mart. Perp.       Martyrdom of Perpetua (Musurillo, 1972)
Mart. Pionii      Martyrdom of Pionius (Musurillo, 1972)
Mart. Pol.         Martyrdom of Polycarp. APF (Musurillo, 1972)
MBAH            Marburger Beiträge zu antiken Handels-, Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte
MDAI              Mitteilungen des Deutschen archäologischen Instituts
Med.                 Celsus, Aulus Cornelius. De medico, On Medicine. LCL 292
Med.                  Seneca, Lucius Annaeus. Medea. LCL 62
Medi.                Aëtius Amidenus. Aetii medici graeci contractae ex veteribus medicinae sermones 16 (1553)
Mem.                 Xenophon of Ephesus. Memorabilia. LCL 168
Menaÿ.              Menaÿot, Talmudic tractate of Menahot
Mens.                Ioannes Lydus. De mensibus, On the Months (Bandy, 2013)
Merc. cond.        Lucian of Samosata. De mercede conductis, Salaried Posts in Great Houses. LCL 130
Metam.              Apuleius. Metamorphoses, The Golden Ass. LCL 44, 453
Metam.              Ovid. Metamorphoses. LCL 42, 43
Meth. Med.       Galen of Pergamum. De Methodo Medendi, On the Method of Medicine. LCL 516–18
Midr. Rab.        Rabbinic writing, Midrash Rabbah (10 vols. eds. Freedman and Simon, 1992)
Mionnet Supp. Description de médailles antiques, grecques et romaines: Supplément. (16 vols. Mionnet, 1807
Mionnet           Description de médailles antiques, grecques et romaines, avec leur degré de rareté et leur estimation (15 vols. ed. Mionnet, 1807–1837)
Mir.                  Aristotle. de Mirabilibus Auscultationibus, On Marvellous Things Heard. LCL 307
Mith.                 Appian of Alexandria. Mithridatic Wars, The Foreign Wars (trans. White)
MM                  Moulton, J. H., and G. Milligan. The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament (1930. Reprint, 1997)
MNTC             The Moffatt New Testament Commentary
Mor.                  Plutarch. Moralia, Moral Essays. LCL 245, 305, 306, 424
Mos.                  Philo. De vita Mosis I, II, On the Life of Moses 1, 2. LCL 289
MS                   Manuscript
MSJ                  The Master’s Seminary Journal
MSS                 Manuscripts
MT                   Masoretic Text
n.p.                   no page; proper name; no place; no publisher
NAB                New American Bible 
NANF1            Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series 1 (eds. Roberts, Donaldson, Schaff, and Wace. 14 vols., 1994)
NASB              New American Standard Bible
Nat. d.              Cicero. De natura deorum, On the Nature of the Gods. LCL 268
Nat. quaest.       Seneca, Lucius Annaeus. Naturales Quaestiones, Natural Questions. LCL 450
Nat.                  Pliny the Elder. Naturalis historia, Natural History. LCL 330, 352, 353, 370, 392–394, 418, 419
NBC                New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition (eds. Carson, France, and Motyer, 1994).
NBD                New Bible Dictionary (eds. Marshall et al., 3rd ed. 1996)
NCB                 New Century Bible Commentary
NDSB              The New Daily Study Bible
NDT                New Dictionary of Theology (eds. Wright, Ferguson, and Packer, 1988)
NEASB           Near Eastern Archaeology Society Bulletin
NedTT             Nederlands theologisch tijdschrift
Neot                  Neotestamentica
Nero                  Suetonius. Lives of the Caesars, Nero. LCL 38
NES                 Near Eastern Studies
NewDocs           New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity (10 vols. eds. Horsley, and Llewelyn, 1981–2012)
NHC                Nag Hammadi Codices (eds. Meyer, and Robinson, 2009)
NIBC               New International Biblical Commentary
NICNT            New International Commentary on the New Testament
NICOT            New International Commentary on the Old Testament
NIDNTT        New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology (ed. Brown, 4 vol. 1975–1986)
NIGTC            New International Greek Testament Commentary
NIV                 New International Version
NIVAC            New International Version Application Commentary
no(s).               number (s)
Nov.                  Theodosius II. Novellae, Novel (Pharr, 2001)
NovT                Novum Testamentum
NovTSup        Novum Testamentum Supplements
NPNF1            Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series 1 (eds. Roberts et al. 14 vols. 1994)
NPNF2            Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series 2 (eds. Roberts et al., 14 vols. 1994)
NRSV              New Revised Standard Version
NT                   New Testament
NTC                 New Testament Commentary
NTCC              The New Testament in Context Commentaries
NTG                New Testament Guides
NTOA             Novum Testamentum et Orbis Antiquus
NTS                 New Testament Studies
ÖAI                 Österreichischen Archäologischen Instituts, Austrian Archaeological Institute
ÖAW               Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Obv.                 Obverse (see Glossary)
OCD                The Oxford Classical Dictionary (eds. Hornblower and Spawforth, 2003)
OCM                Oxford Classical Monographs
Oct.                   Marcus Minucius Felix. Octavius. LCL 250
Od.                    Homer, The Odyssey. LCL 104, 105
Odes                  Horace. Carmina, Odes. LCL 33
Odes Sol.           Odes of Solomon, OTP
OEAGR          The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome (7 vols. ed. Gagarin, 2010)
OEANE          The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East (5 vols. ed. Meyers, 1997)
OGIS                Orientis graeci inscriptiones selectee, Supplementum Sylloges Inscriptionum Graecarum (4 vols. eds. Dittenberger et al. 1915)
Ol.                    Pindar. Olympionikai, Olympian Odes. LCL 56
Oneir.                Artemidorus. Oneirocritica, The Interpretation of Dreams (ed. White, 1975)
Onom.             Pollux, Julius. Onomasticon (ed. Dindorf, 1824)
op. cit.             Lat. opere citato, in the work cited
OPBIAA         Occasional Publications of the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara
Opif.                 Philo. De opificio mundi, On the Creation of the World. LCL 226
Or. Bas.             Gregory of Nazianzus or Nazianzen. Orationes, Oratio in Iaudem Basilii, Orations, NPNF2 7
or. Graec.          Tatian. Oratio ad Graecos, Address to the Greeks. ANF 2
Or.                    Dio Chrysostom. Orations, Discourses. LCL 257, 339, 358, 376, 385
Orat.                 Aelius Aristides. Orations (2 Vols. trans. Behr 1981, 1986). LCL 533
OSRE              Oxford Studies on the Roman Economy
OT                   Old Testament
ÖTKNT          Ökumenischer Taschenbuch-kommentar zum Neuen Testament
OTP                 Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (ed. Charlesworth. 2 vols. 1983)
𝔭                       Papyrus
Passim              here and there
P.Oxy.              The Oxyrhynchus Papyri (75 vols. trans. Grenfell and Hunt, 2009)
P.Ryl.               Ryland Papyri. LCL 282 (trans. Hunt, 1934)
Paed.                 Clement of Alexandria. Paedagogus, Christ the Educator or Tutor. ANF 2
Pan.                  Epiphanius of Salamis. Panarion (Adversus haereses), Refutation of All Heresies (trans. Williams, 1993)
Pat.                   Cyprian of Carthage. De bono patientiae, The Advantage of Patience. ANF 5
Pax                   Aristophanes. Pax, Peace. LCL 488
PD                    Public Domain
PDM                Papyri demoticae magicae. Demotic texts in PGM corpus as collated in The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, including the Demotic Spells (ed. Betz, 1996)
PECS               Princeton Encyclopaedia of Classical Sites (eds. Stillwell, MacDonald, and McAllister, 1976)
PEQ                 Palestine Exploration Quarterly
Per.                   Ctesias. Persica (trans. Stronk, 2010)
Per.                   Livy. The Periochae (ed. Jal, 1984)
Peric.                 Plutarch. Lives: Pericles and Fabius Maximus. LCL 65
Pers.                 Persian
Pers.                  Aeschylus. The Persians. LCL 145
Pesiq. Rab.        Pesiqta Rabbati (ed. Ulmer 2002)
PGM                Papyri graecae magicae, Great Magical Papyri (ed. Betz, 1996)
Phar.                 Lucan. Pharsalia or The Civil War. LCL 220
PHI                  Packard Humanities Institute numbers for Greek inscriptions. Cornell University and Ohio State University. http://epigraphy.packhum.org/inscriptions
Phil.                  Cicero. Orationes philippicae, The Philippic Speeches: Consisting of 14 tirades against Mark Anthony (Antonian Orations). LCL 189, 507; (Yonge, 1913)
Phil.                  Sophocles. Oedipus Tyrannus, Philoctetes. LCL 21
Philop.               Lucian. Philopseudes, Lover of Lies or Cheater. LCL 130
Phoen.               Lactantius. de Ave Phoenice, The Phoenix (ed. Fitzpatrick, 1933)
Pirqe ‘Abot        Avot, Pirke. Sayings of the Jewish Fathers
Pirqe R. El.      Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer (trans. Friedlander, 1916)
Pist. Soph.         Pistis Sophia. (trans. Mead, 2006)
pl.                     plural
Plant.                Philo. De plantatione Noe, Concerning Noah’s Work as a Planter. LCL 247
pls.                   plates
Pneum.              Heron of Alexandria. Pneumatica (Schmidt 1976)
PNTC              Pillar New Testament Commentary Series
Pol.                   Aristotle. Politics. LCL 264
Pol.                   Xenophanes of Colophon. Pollux. (see Tyrtaeus) LCL 258
Pol. Phil.          Polycarp. To the Philippians. ANF
Praec. ger. publ.  Plutarch. Praecepta gerendae rei publicae, Precepts of Statecraft. LCL 321
Praep. Ev.         Eusebius. Praeparatio evangelica, Preparation for the Gospel (ed. Gifford 1981)
Praescr.              Tertullian. De praescriptione haereticorum, Prescription against Heretics. ANF 3
Prob.                 Philo. Quod omnis probus liber sit, Good Person That Every Good Person is Free. LCL 363
Prop.                 Galen. De Propriorum Animi Cuiuslibet Affectuum Dignotione et Curatione (Aff. Dig.) V:40-1, The Passions and Errors of the Soul (trans. Riese, 1963).
Pseud. Clem. Rec. Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions. ANF 8
Pss. Sol.            Psalms of Solomon, OTP
PTMS               Princeton Theological Monograph Studies
Pud.                  Tertullian. De pudicitia, Modesty. ANF 4
PW                   Pauly’s Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (New edition. 49 vols. eds. Georg Wissowa, et al. 1980)
QE                   Philo. Quaestiones et solutiones in Exodum I, II, Questions and Answers on Exodus 1, 2. LCL 401
Quaest. conv.     Plutarch. Quaestionum convivialium libri IX, Moralia, Table-Talk. LCL 425
Quaest. rom.      Plutarch. Quaestiones romanae et graecae (Aetia romana et graeca), Roman and Greek Questions. LCL 305
r.                       ruled
Rab.                  Rabbah, rabbinic writing usually on one of the books of the Pentateuch (i.e., Genesis Rabbah)
RAC                Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum (10 vols. ed. Klauser et al. 1950–78)
RB                    Revue biblique
RBL                  Reveiw of Biblical Literature
RBPH               Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire
RCT                 Revista catalana de teología
RE Supp          Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche Supplement
Re. Nat.            Lucretius. De Rerum Natura, On the Nature of Things. LCL 181
REA                Revue Des études Anciennes
Recog.                Pseudo-Clementines. Recognitions. ANF 8
Res.                   Tertullian. De Resurrectione Carnis, The Resurrection of the Flesh. ANF
Resp.                 Plato. Respublica, Republic. LCL 237
Rev.                  Reverse (see Glossary)
RevExp             Review and Expositor
RHR                 Revue de l’histoire des religions
RIC                  Roman Imperial Coinage (13 Vols. ed. Mattingly et al. 1923)
RivB                  Rivista biblica italiana
RNT                 Regensburger Neues Testament
Rom. Hist.        Eutropius. Abridgment of Roman History (trans. Watson, 1886)
Rom. Hist.        Herodian. History of the Roman Empire. LCL 455
Rosc. Amer.       Cicero. Pro Sexto Roscio Amerino, For Sextus Roscius of Ameria. LCL 240
RPC                  Roman Provincial Coinage (9 Vol. ed. Burnett, 2003)
RSA                 Religion in South Africa
RSC                  Rivista di studi classici
RSR                  Recherches de science religieuse
RSV                  Revised Standard Version
Rud.                  Plautus. Rudens, The Rope. LCL 260
Rufin.                Claudian. In Rufinum, Against Rufinus 1 and 2. LCL 135
Rust.                 Varro, Marcus Terentius. Res Rustica or Rerum Rusticarum, Concerning Agriculture. LCL 283
Sacr.                  Philo. De sacrificiis Abelis et Caini, On the Sacrifices of Cain and Abel. LCL 227
San. Tu.            Galen. De Sanitate Tuenda, On the Preservation of Health (trans. Green, 1951)
Sanh.                Sanhedrin
Sat.                   Horace. Satirae, Satires. LCL 194
Sat.                   Juvenal. Satire. LCL 91
Sat.                   Petronius. Satyricon, Satyrica. LCL 15
SBL                  Society for Biblical Literature
SBLDS             Society of Biblical Literature Dissertation Series
SBLSP              Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers
SBLSS              Society of Biblical Literature: Resources for Biblical Study
SBLWAW       Society of Biblical Literature Writings from the Ancient World series
SBT                  Studies in Biblical Theology 2nd Series
SCJS                 Studies in Christianity and Judaism Series
Scorp.                Tertullian. Scorpiace, Antidote for the Scorpion’s Sting. ANF 3
SDB                 Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible (4 vols. ed. Hackett, 1883)
SEÅ                 Svensk exegetisk årsbok
SEG                 Supplementum epigraphicum graecum (eds. Chaniotis, Corsten, Papazarkadas, and Tybout, 1923–)
Sert.                  Plutarch. Lives: Sertorius. LCL 100 
SFSHJ              South Florida Studies in the History of Judaism
Shem.                Shemoth Rabbah on Exodus (ed. Freedman, 1992)
Sib. Or.             Sibylline Oracles, APOT
sic                     “so, thus, in this manner” meaning the error was in the original
Sifre                  Classical Jewish legal Biblical exegesis, based on the biblical books of Devarim (Deuteronomy).
SIG                  Sylloge inscriptionum graecarum (4 vols., ed. Dittenberger, 3rd ed. 1915–1924)
Silv.                  Statius. Silvae. LCL 206
Sim.                  Shepherd of Hermas. Similitude. ANF
Sir                     Sirach, Ecclesiasticus, APOT
SJLA                Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity
SJT                   Scottish Journal of Theology
SMR                 seven messages of Revelation
SMRVT          The Seven Messages of Revelation and Vassal Treaties: Literary Genre, Structure, and Function (Graves, 2009)
Smyrn.               Ignatius. To the Smyrnaeans. ANF
SNG BnF        Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, France, Cabinet des Médailles, Bibliothéque Nationale (eds. Nicolet, Delepierre, and Le Rider, 1983– 2001)=SNG France, SNG Paris, SNG BN
SNG Cop.        Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum (7 vols. ed. Breitenstein, and Schwabacher. Copenhagen, 1942)
SNG Kayhan    Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum: Turkey 1, The Muharrem Kayhan Collection Part 2. (Tekin, Ozdizbay, and Koray, 2015)
SNG Lewis      Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain VI, Corpus Christi College Cambridge, The Lewis Collection Part I: The Greek and Hellenistic Coins (with Britain and Parthia) (ed. Carradice, 1972)
SNG München Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland: Staatliche Münzsammlung München (Franke, and Küthmann, 1968)
SNG Righetti    Sylloge nummorum graecorum Schweiz II. Katalog der Sammlung Jean-Pierre Righetti im Bernischen Historischen Museum II (ed. Kapossy, 1993)
SNG Tübingen Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen (6 vols. ed. Mannsperger, 1981–1998)
SNGvA            Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum: Collection of Greek Coins from Asia Minor (4 vols. Von Aulock. ed. Kleiner, 1957-1967, 1987)
SNR                 Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau
SNT                 Studien zum Neuen Testament
SNTS               Society for New Testament Studies Monograph Series
Sobr.                 Philo. De Sobrietate, On Sobriety. LCL 247
Somn.                Philo. De somniis, On Dreams. LCL 275
Song (Cant.)    Song of Songs (Song or Solomon, or Canticles)
Soph. Jes. Chr.   Sophia of Jesus Christ, NHC
SPAW              Sitzungsberichte der Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
SPDI                Studi pubblicati dall’ Istituto Italiano per la Storia Antica
Spec.                  Philo. De specialibus legibus, On the Special Laws. LCL 320
SPS                   Sacra Pagina Series
SQC                 Scrolls from Qumran Cave I (Trever, 1974)
SR                    Studies in Religion/Sciences religieuses
SSEJC              Studies in Early Judaism and Christianity
StABH             Studies in American Biblical Hermeneutics
StBL                 Studies in Biblical Literature
Strat.                 Polyaenus. Strategemata, Stratagems of War (trans. Shepherd 1793)
Strom.               Clement of Alexandria. Stromata, Miscellanies or Patchwork. ANF
STTJ                Studies of the Texts of Thedesert of Judah
Sull.                  Plutarch. Lives: Sulla. LCL 80
SUNT              Studien zur Umwelt des Neuen Testaments
Sus                   Susanna, APOT
T. Ab.               Testament of Abraham, OTP
T. Benj.             Testament of Benjamin, OTP
T. Dan              Testament of Dan, OTP
T. Job                Testament of Job, OTP
T. Jud.               Testament of Judah, OTP
T. Levi              Testament of Levi, OTP
T. Mos.             Testament of Moses, OTP
TAD                Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi
TAM III          Tituli Asiae Minoris, III (Heberdey, 1941)
TAM V           Titula Asiae Minoris, V (Vol. 1, nos. 1-825; Vol. 2, nos. 826-1414, ed. Hermann 1989)
TDNT             Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (10 vols. eds. Kittel and Friedrich, Trans. Bromiley 1964–1985)
TDOT              Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament (8 vols. eds. Botterweck, and Ringgren, trans. Willis, Bromiley, and Green, 1974–)
Teach. Silv.        VII, 4 Teachings of Silvanus. NHC
Test.                  Cyprian of Carthage. Ad Quirinum testimonia adversus Judaeos, To Quirinius: Three Books of Testomonies against the Jews, ANF 5
Tg. Isa.              Targum of Isaiah (Chilton 1987)
Tg. Jer.              Targum of Jeremiah. Aramaic Old Testament
Tg. Neof.           Targum Neofiti. Aramaic Old Testament
Tg. Onq.           Targum Onqelos
Tg. Pal.             The Palestinian Targum. The Western Targumim on the Torah
Tg. Ps.-J.           Targum Pseudo-Jonathan (Etheridge, 1862)
Tg.                    Targum
Theb.                 Statius. Thebais, Thebaid. LCL 207
Theog.               Hesiod. Theogonia, Theogony. LCL 57
ThS                   Theological Studies
Tib.                   Suetonius. The Lives of the Caesars: Tiberius. LCL 31
Tim. Frag.         Theopompus. Timaei Fragmenta (Müller, 1841)
TJ                     Trinity Journal
TNTC              The Tyndale New Testament Commentary
Tob                  Tobias, Tobit, APOT
TP                    Theologie und Philosophie
TPINTC          Trinity Press International New Testament Commentaries
Trist.                 Ovid. Tristia, Sorrows. LCL 151
TSAJ                Texte Und Studien Zum Antiken Judentum
TSK                  Theologische Studien und Kritiken
TU                    Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur
TWNT             Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament (10 vols. eds. Kittel and Friedrich, 1932–1979)
TynBul              Tyndale Bulletin
UF                    Ugarit-Forschungen
Var. hist.          Aelian, Claudius. Varia historia, Historical Miscellany. LCL 486
VC                   Vigiliae Christianae
ver. vs.             verse, verses.
Verr.                Cicero. In Verrem, Against Gaius Verres, or The Verrines. LCL 293
Vir. ill.             Jerome. De viris illustribus, On Illustrious Men. NPNF1 3
Vis.                   Shepherd of Hermas. Vision. ANF
vit.                    Vita
Vit. Aes.           Aesop. Vita Aesopi, Vita G or Perriana (2 vol. ed. Perry, 1952)
Vit. Apoll.        Philostratus, Flavius. De Vita Apollonii, Life of Apollonius of Tyana. LCL 16, 17
Vit. Phil.          Diogenes Laertius. Vitae philosophorum, Lives of Eminent Philosophers. LCL 184, 185
Vit. Polyc.         Pionius. Vita Polycarp, The Life of Polycarp, APF
Vit. Soph.         Philostratus, Lucius Flavius. Vita Sophistarum, The Lives of the Sophists. LCL 134
VÖAW            Verlag der Österreiehischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
vol.                   volume.
VT                   Vetus Testamentum
VTSup             Vetus Testamentum Supplements
Waddington    Inventaire Sommaire de La Collection Waddington Acquise Par L’état En 1897 Pour Le Département Des Médailles et Antiques de La Bibliothèque Nationale, Rédigé Par Ernest Babelon (Waddington, 1898).
WBC                Word Biblical Commentary
Wis                   Wisdom of Solomon, APOT
WMANT        Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament
WTJ                 Westminster Theological Journal
WUNT            Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament
ZAW               Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft
ZBK                Zürcher Bibelkommentare
ZEB                 Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible (Revised, Full-Colour ed. 5 vols. eds. Tenney and Silva eds. 2009)
ZECNT          Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament
ZIBBC            Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary
ZNW               Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche
ZPE                 Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik
ZPEB               The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible (eds. Tenney and Silva, 5 vols. 2009)
ZRGG              Zeitschrift für Religions- und Geistesgeschichte

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Figure 173

Kunsthistorisches Museum (no. IX A 79) Photograph by James Steakley, PD Roman cameo of Gemma Augustea (AD 9–12). A depiction of Emperor...